Parkinsonism word is used for a motor syndrome. The main symptoms are tremor at rest, stiffness, slowing of movement and postural instability.
Parkinsonian syndromes can be divided into four subtypes according to their origin:
3. Hereditary P
4. Parkinson Plus Syndrome/ Multiple System Degeration
It means Parkinsonism with no external identifiable cause. In recent years several genes that are directly related to some causes of Parkinson’s Disease have been discovered.
The term Familial Parkinson’s Disease and Sporadic Parkinson’s Disease can be used to differentiate genetic from truly idiopathic forms of disease.
Usually classified as a movement disorder PD also gives rise to many non-motor types of symptoms like sensory deficits, cognitive difficulties or sleep problems.
Parkinson’s Plus Disease are primary Parkinsonism’s which present additional features. They include Multiple System Arophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration and dementia with Lewy Bodies.
In terms of pathophysiological part, PD is considered a Synucleiopathy due to abnormal accumulation of alpha synuclein protein in the brain in the form of Lewy Bodies, as opposed to other disease such as Alzheimer’s Disease, where the brain accumulates Tan Protein in the form of Neurofibrollary Tangles.
The most typical symptoms of the Alzheimer’s Disease, dementia, occurs in advanced stages of PD, while it is common to find neurofibrillary tungles in brains affected by PD.
Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) is another synucleiop that has similarities with PD, and especially with the subsets of PD cases with dementia.